Discussion in 'Basic Training Principles and Methods' started by faz, Apr 14, 2010.
Lucky I don't want to get thin, I want to get thick.
Joking apart all the article says is that people tend to eat more when they exercising and if they eat an additional amount of calories that is above the calories burned on the exercise they will gain weight instead of lose it. House has a good way to summarize it: people are stupid.
I can't stand articles like this. They tell you just enough to make people feel discouraged. It is crap like this that make thousands of people stop exercising after reading it. And this guy, "
"In general, for weight loss, exercise is pretty useless," says Eric Ravussin, chair in diabetes and metabolism at Louisiana State University and a prominent exercise researcher." should be banned from public comment until he learns what the crap he's talking about. How do people get to positions of authority like this?!!! I can only hope that his comments were taken out of context.
But don't take my word for it...Here is a "short" list of quotes from research of the effects of physical activity and the pathology brought on by physical inactivity.
The recent Surgeon General’s Report on Physical Activity and Health underscores the pivotal role physical activity plays in health promotion and disease prevention. It recommends that individuals accumulate 30 min of moderate physical activity on most days of the week. (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services: Physical Activity and Health: A Report of the Surgeon General. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Washington, DC, U.S. Govt. Printing Office, 1996)
The American College of Sports Medicine recommends 60-90 minutes of moderate activity per day to keep the weight off. (Jakicic JM, et al., American College of Sports Medicine position stand: appropriate intervention strategies for weight loss and prevention of weight regain for adults. Med Sci Sports Exerc 33 : 2145-2156,2001)
Exercise does not have to be daunting….Research suggests that total calories burned and not intensity or duration of exercise is most important for weight loss maintenance. Home-based workouts with or without the provision of equipment and/or focusing on short bouts of exercise are more effective for improving exercise adherence than is supervised group exercise, hiring a personal trainer, or emphasizing long bouts of exercise. (C. Garcia Ulen, M. M. Huizinga, B. Beech, and T. A. Elasy Weight Regain Prevention Clin. Diabetes, July 1, 2008; 26(3): 100 - 113.)
All Chronic Disease
In ancient times, Hippocrates stated that "the function of protecting and developing health must rank even above that of restoring it when it is impaired." (Mokdad AH, Marks JS, Stroup DF & Gerberding JL (2004). Actual causes of death in the United States, 2000. JAMA 291, 1238–1245.)
It is now recognized that the lack of regular exercise is an ‘actual’ cause of death. (Mokdad AH, Marks JS, Stroup DF & Gerberding JL (2004). Actual causes of death in the United States, 2000. JAMA 291, 1238–1245.) (see also Rector RS, Thyfault JP, et al. Cessation of daily exercise dramatically alters precursors of hepatic steatosis in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats. J Physiol. 2008 Jul 10.)
“The average amount of human daily physical activity has declined alarmingly over the past century. It is now known that physical exercise beneficially affects the human body in a multifactorial manner. However, the number of chronic diseases and associated financial costs potentially produced by physical inactivity is still much larger than generally appreciated…we know of no single intervention with greater promise than physical exercise to reduce the risk of virtually all chronic diseases simultaneously.” (Booth FW, et al. Waging war on modern chronic diseases: primary prevention through exercise biology. J Appl Physiol. 2000 Feb;88(2):774-87.)
Epidemiological data have established that physical inactivity increases the incidence of at least 17 unhealthy conditions, almost all of which are chronic diseases or considered risk factors for chronic diseases. (Booth FW, et al. Waging war on modern chronic diseases: primary prevention through exercise biology. J Appl Physiol. 2000 Feb;88(2):774-87.)
“Clearly, there is overwhelming evidence linking most chronic diseases seen in the world today to physical inactivity…” (Roberts CK, Barnard RJ. Effects of exercise and diet on chronic disease. J Appl Physiol. 2005 Jan;98(1):3-30.)
“When it comes to reducing early deaths, “medical care” has a relatively minor role. Even if the entire U.S. population had access to excellent medical care only a small fraction of these deaths could be prevented. The single greatest opportunity to improve health and reduce premature deaths lies in personal behavior. In fact, behavioral causes account for nearly 40% of all deaths in the United States. Although there has been disagreement over the actual number of deaths that can be attributed to obesity and physical inactivity combined, it is clear that this pair of factors and smoking are the top two behavioral causes of premature death. (Schroeder SA. We Can Do Better -- Improving the Health of the American People. NEJM 2007;357:1221-1228.)
Humans living today inherited a genome that was programmed for daily physical activity and a high-fiber diet. (Eaton SB and Konner M. Paleolithic nutrition. A consideration of its nature and current implications. N Engl J Med 312: 283–289, 1985.).
“Medical spending attributable to obesity in the United States was estimated to be $92.6 billion in 2002 dollars, and between 112,000 and 400,000 deaths per year are attributable to overweight and lack of physical activity.8-10” (LaFontaine T. Physical Activity: The Epidemic of Obesity and Overweight Among Youth: Trends, Consequences, and Interventions. American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine 2008; 2; 30)
“the nearly 3-fold increase in youth overweight and obesity in the past 3 to 4 decades represents a potentially devastating tragedy for the health of the nation…it is the moral duty of all adults to personally adopt a healthy, physically active lifestyle to serve as role models for youth.” (LaFontaine T. Physical Activity: The Epidemic of Obesity and Overweight Among Youth: Trends, Consequences, and Interventions. American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine 2008; 2; 30)
“Participating in regular exercise can decrease your relative risk of:
• coronary artery disease by 45%
• stroke by 60%
• hypertension by 30%
• colon cancer by 41%
• breast cancer by 31%
• Type 2 diabetes by 50%
• osteoporosis by 59%”
(Booth FW, Lees SJ. Fundamental questions about genes, inactivity, and chronic diseases. Physiol Genomics. 2007 Jan 17;28(2):146-57.)(Katzmarzyk PT, Janssen I. The economic costs associated with physical inactivity and obesity in Canada: an update. Can J Appl Physiol 29: 90–115, 2004.)
Discovering the Environmental Root(s) of Chronic Disease
50% of Americans who claim to be physically active don’t reach the threshold for any health benefit and 25% of Americans are completely sedentary. (Center for Disease Control)
The question remains: what altered environmental factors have elicited the increased incidence of chronic disease in the 20th century? Establishing one true causal effect is unlikely. However, what if one particular environmental factor were identified that has become dramatically more pronounced in the past century? Moreover, what if it were shown that reducing the magnitude of this environmental factor back to pre-1900 status could 1) potentially prevent most chronic diseases before they start (i.e., primary prevention), 2) profoundly and positively impact virtually all known chronic disease conditions even after their diagnosis, 3) decrease morbidity while increasing longevity and vitality in older individuals, 4) improve mental health and sense of well-being, and 5) have the ability to decrease annual US health care spending by hundreds of billions of dollars while costing little to nothing in return? Would this altered environmental factor be considered a potential origin of chronic disease(s)? Would the study of the biological effects of this environmental factor be worthy of public funding? Would it be beneficial to determine the effect of this environmental factor on gene expression at a molecular level? Such an environmental factor does exist: PHYSICAL INACTIVITY. (Booth FW, et al. Waging war on modern chronic diseases: primary prevention through exercise biology. J Appl Physiol. 2000 Feb;88(2):774-87.)
“Far too many people appear to have accepted the determinants of the problems of overweight and inactivity, and rely on ‘treatments’ in the forms of myriad ineffective diet remedies and nostrums. As with many health issues, it is essential to emphasize prevention [i.e. exercise] as the only effective and cost-effective approach.’’ (Koplan, J. P., and W. H. Dietz. Caloric imbalance and public health policy. JAMA 282: 1579–1581, 1999.)
In the Media
“…the more commonplace the cause of death [i.e. physical inactivity], the less likely it is to be covered by the mass media…In the United States, SARS and bioterrorism killed fewer than a dozen people in 2003, but together generated over 100,000 media reports. Almost 800,000 people each year die from the consequences of physical inactivity and smoking, but these triggered far less media attention.” (Bomlitz and Brezis. Misrepresentation of health risks by mass media J Public Health (Oxf) 2008;30:202-204.)
Heart Disease, Colon Cancer, & Type 2 Diabetes
“According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, sedentary living is responsible for about one-third of deaths due to coronary heart disease, colon cancer, and Type 2 diabetes (three diseases for which physical inactivity is an established primary causal factor). Thus, if everyone were highly active, the premature death rate from these three diseases could fall by over 30%.” (Powell KE, Blair SN. The public health burdens of sedentary living habits: theoretical but realistic estimates. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1994 Jul;26(7):851-6.)
Studies showed that ~30–50% of all cases of Type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, and many cancers were prevented by 30 min of moderate-intensity exercise each day in middle-aged women (e.g., walking >3 miles/h) compared with cohorts who exhibited lower levels of physical activity (Colditz GA, et al. Physical activity and reduced risk of colon cancer: implications for prevention. Cancer Causes Control 8: 649–666, 1997., Hu FB, et al. Diet, lifestyle, and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in women. N Engl J Med 345: 790–797, 2001., Manson JE, et al. A prospective study of walking as compared with vigorous exercise in the prevention of coronary heart disease in women. N Engl J Med 341: 650–658, 1999.).
Walking a total of 3 hrs/week, or jogging 1.5 hrs/week can reduce your risk of heart disease by 30-40% (Manson, J. E. et al. A prospective study of walking compared with vigorous exercise in the prevention of coronary heart disease in women. N. Engl. J. Med. 341: 650–658, 1999.)
“Physical activity reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease, with a magnitude of risk reduction comparable to that of not smoking.” (S. Mora, N. et al. Lee Physical Activity and Reduced Risk of Cardiovascular Events: Potential Mediating Mechanisms. Circulation, November 6, 2007; 116(19): 2110 - 2118.)
If a person will walk briskly for 30 minutes a day, research shows they can reduce their chances of suffering a stroke from 25% to as much as 60%. (Wendel-Vos GC, et al. Physical activity and stroke. A meta-analysis of observational data. Int J Epidemiol. 2004 Aug;33(4):787-98.) (Booth FW, Lees SJ. Fundamental questions about genes, inactivity, and chronic diseases. Physiol Genomics. 2007 Jan 17;28(2):146-57.)(Katzmarzyk PT, Janssen I. The economic costs associated with physical inactivity and obesity in Canada: an update. Can J Appl Physiol 29: 90–115, 2004.)
We now know that if you are willing to “move until you sweat” just once per week, you can reduce your risk of developing Type-II diabetes by nearly 25%. If you do just a little more, from once per week to 2-4 times per week, you will further decrease your risk by nearly 40%. (Manson, J. E. et al. A prospective study of exercise and incidence of diabetes among US male physicians. JAMA 268: 63–67, 1992.)
“It is clear that the epidemic of type 2 diabetes sweeping the globe is associated with decreasing levels of activity and an increasing prevalence of obesity. Thus, the promoting of exercise as a component of the prevention as well as management of type 2 diabetes is vital.” (American Diabetes Association Position Statement on Diabetes Mellitus and Exercise http://www.ms-se.com/pt/pt-core/template-journal/msse/media/1297.htm)
“Physically active individuals have a dramatically lower risk of developing Type 2 diabetes. In fact, active persons are one-third to one-half as likely to develop diabetes as inactive persons.” (F. W. Booth and W. W. Winder, Role of Exercise in Reducing the Risk of Diabetes and Obesity. Journal of Applied Physiology 99:3-4, 2005.)
As populations within the United States and worldwide become increasingly sedentary and as the prevalence of both Type 2 diabetes and obesity steadily increase, metabolic and cardiovascular health is an ever-increasing public health concern. Fortunately there is considerable evidence that physical activity can be an effective and tangible means of treating and preventing the onset of diabetes and obesity. (F. W. Booth and W. W. Winder, Role of Exercise in Reducing the Risk of Diabetes and Obesity. Journal of Applied Physiology 99:3-4, 2005.)
30 to 45 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous activity on most days of the week will reduce ones risk of developing many cancers. 30-45 minutes of exercise most days of the week can reduce the chance of developing breast and colon cancer by as much as 40%. (Marrett, L., Theis, B. & Ashbury, F. (2000) An Expert Panel Workshop report: physical activity and cancer prevention. Chronic Dis. Can. 21: 143–149.)( Newton RU, Galvão DA. Exercise in Prevention and Management of Cancer. Curr Treat Options Oncol. 2008 Aug 13)
Regular physical activity during puberty may be particularly important for reducing breast cancer risk. However, continuous high levels of physical activity throughout life may be just as important as physical activity in puberty. (Marcus PM, Newman B, Moorman PG, Millikan RC, Baird DD, Qaqish B, Sternfeld B. Physical activity at age 12 and adult breast cancer risk (United States). Cancer Causes Control. 1999 Aug;10(4):293-302)
“In the last eight years, a dearth of research has become a flood of studies. Among them is one sponsored by the National Cancer Institute in 2006 that looked at the effects of moderate exercise on groups of breast and prostate cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy for six weeks. Those assigned to a daily program -- taking walks of increasing distance and doing exercises with a resistance band -- had less fatigue, greater strength and better aerobic capacity than those who were not instructed to exercise. This finding, and similar ones, has been replicated many times.” (O’Connor, Anahad. “PERSONAL FITNESS; Said the Doctor to the Cancer Patient: Hit the Gym.” New York Times August 14, 2008)
“Studies at Dana-Farber found that non-metastatic colon cancer patients who routinely exercised had a 50 percent lower mortality rate during the study period than their inactive peers, regardless of how active they were before the diagnoses.” (O’Connor, Anahad. “PERSONAL FITNESS; Said the Doctor to the Cancer Patient: Hit the Gym.” New York Times August 14, 2008)
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) estimates that 25% of cancer cases worldwide are caused by overweight or obesity and a sedentary lifestyle (Vainio H, Bianchini F., eds. Weight Control and Physical Activity. Lyon: IARC Press; 2002.)(Campbell KL, McTiernan A. Exercise and biomarkers for cancer prevention studies. J Nutr. 2007 Jan;137(1 Suppl):161S-169S.).
We are in the midst of an epidemic of obesity, where over one-quarter of all adults are obese and another 35% are overweight. Children are not faring much better because childhood obesity has tripled over the past three decades. Obesity is recognized as one of our most serious public health challenges. (Hill JO, Wyatt HR. Role of physical activity in preventing and treating obesity. J Appl Physiol. 2005 Aug;99(2):765-70.)
Obesity has reached epidemic proportions in the United States. In 2005-2006, > 72 million adults, or 34% of the population > 20 years of age, were obese (BMI ≥ 30) (Ulen C. Garcia, et al. Weight Regain Prevention Clin. Diabetes, July 1, 2008; 26(3): 100 - 113.)
Given that most people are doing at least low levels of daily activity, it may only take an additional 15–30 min of moderate-intensity physical activity for many people to prevent weight gain. (Hill JO, Wyatt HR. Role of physical activity in preventing and treating obesity. J Appl Physiol. 2005 Aug;99(2):765-70.)
The National Weight Control Registry (NWCR) has a data base of over 5,000 individuals who have lost at least 30 lbs and kept it off for at least a year (a requirement of the Registry). Over 90% of registrants in the database relied heavily on regular workouts to keep the weight off and have done so for an average of 5.5 years. Interestingly, the greatest predictor of weight regain is a decrease in regular workouts. (Klem ML, Wing RR, McGuire MT, Seagle HM, and Hill JO. A descriptive study of individuals successful at long term maintenance of substantial weight loss. Am J Clin Nutr 66: 239–246, 1997)( Wing RR and Hill JO. Successful weight loss maintenance. Annu Rev Nutr 21: 323–341, 2001)
…brisk walking is the most common form of exercise reported by successful weight loss maintainers in the NWCR. (Catenacci VA, et al., Physical activity patterns in the National Weight Control Registry. Obesity (Silver Spring) 16:153 -161, 2008)
“those who are most successful at weight loss in the NWCR are extremely physically active, and these findings provide further evidence that high levels of physical activity are important for long-term maintenance of weight loss.” (Catenacci VA, Ogden LG, Stuht J, Phelan S, Wing RR, Hill JO, Wyatt HR. Physical activity patterns in the National Weight Control Registry. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2008 Jan;16(1):153-61.)
We’ve all heard the simple logic that weight gain is a result of calories in vs. calories out. New research however is demonstrating that not exercising can make you fat even when calories are taken out of the equation. (Laye MJ. Et al. Inactivity induces increases in abdominal fat. J Appl Physiol. 2007 Apr;102(4):1341-7.)
“exercise has been shown to help fight erectile dysfunction, says Eric Rimm, SPH associate professor of epidemiology and nutrition and assistant professor of medicine at HMS. In a study of older men, Rimm found that exercise enhances the relaxation response necessary for an erection and improves vascular reactivity to stimulation. Nitric oxide again plays a key role, but all the other improvements in circulation associated with exercise can also contribute to improved function. In a German study comparing the effects of exercise to Viagra (sildenafil) and a placebo treatment, men with erectile dysfunction and mild to moderate circulation problems engaged in a two-year program of squatting exercises and pelvic and leg lifts designed to improve blood flow to the pelvis, buttocks, and upper leg muscles. Eighty percent of the exercisers reported better erections, compared with 74 percent taking sildenafil and 18 percent on the placebo.” (Jonathan Shaw. The Deadliest Sin From survival of the fittest to staying fit just to survive: scientists probe the benefits of exercise -- and the dangers of sloth. Harvard Magazine. 2004 March-April)
“Research has shown that near-daily brisk walking compared with no exercise reduced the number of sickness days by half over a 12- to 15-week period without change in resting immune function.” (Nieman DC, Pedersen BK. Exercise and immune function. Recent developments. Sports Med. 1999 Feb;27(2):73-80.)
“regular [physical] activity has a lasting anti-inflammatory effect on the body. Regular physical activity has been shown to reduce markers of systemic inflammation by ~20% to 30%” (S. Mora, N. et al. Lee Physical Activity and Reduced Risk of Cardiovascular Events: Potential Mediating Mechanisms. Circulation, November 6, 2007; 116(19): 2110 - 2118.)
“The anti-inflammatory actions of exercise are evident after as little as 2 to 12 weeks of regular training.” (Flynn MG. State of the Art Reviews: The Anti-Inflammatory Actions of Exercise Training. American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine, Vol. 1, No. 3, 220-235 (2007)
Exercise and Depression
Exercise has a large therapeutic impact on depression. Patients with both moderate and more severe depression appear to benefit similarly. Exercise is as effective as psychotherapy and pharmacological treatment. Fitness gains are not necessary to achieve reductions in depression and that exercise program characteristics, such as duration, intensity, frequency, and mode of exercise, do not moderate the effect. The length of the exercise program matters, however, with programs 9 weeks or longer associated with larger reductions in depression. In addition, a dose-response relationship may exist, with more exercise producing a larger reduction in depression, implying that exercise characteristics such as frequency, duration, and intensity may be important. (Craft LL, Freund KM, Culpepper L, Perna FM. Intervention study of exercise for depressive symptoms in women. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2007 Dec;16(10):1499-509.)
Exercise and Pregnancy
“the belief that moderate work and exercise may actually be beneficial dates from biblical times. In Exodus 1:19, it was claimed that ‘the Hebrew women are not like the Egyptian women; for they are lively, and are delivered ere the midwife come unto them.".”
“…higher amounts of exercise have been associated with a reduced incidence of caesarean section and shorter hospitalization (Hall and Kaufmann, 1987). Amongst those who give birth vaginally, physical fitness may also be associated with a shorter duration of active labor (Clapp, 1990). The benefits of physical activity during pregnancy are not only limited to intra-partum outcomes. Participation in physical activity has also been linked with the promotion of good maternal posture, the prevention of excess maternal weight gain and a reduction in lower back pain (Dewey and McCrory, 1994). From a psychological perspective, regular exercise may also improve a woman’s body image (Dewey and McCrory, 1994), reduce depression (Derosis and Pellegrino, 1982) and raise her self-esteem (Wallace et al., 1986).” (Clarke PE, Gross H. Women's behaviour, beliefs and information sources about physical exercise in pregnancy. Midwifery. 2004 Jun;20(2):133-41.)
Exercise and Longevity
“…regular exercise may not only be effective at ‘‘improving health’’, but may also induce adaptations at the cellular and molecular levels that directly impede the very causes of aging.” (Johnston AP, De Lisio M, Parise G. Resistance training, sarcopenia, and the mitochondrial theory of aging. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2008 Feb;33(1):191-9.)
These effects of aging may be prevented or reversed by exercise. Older adults who exercised throughout life have less brain tissue loss than people who don’t exercise. Moreover, physically fit older individuals performed better on cognitive tests than their sedentary counterparts.” (van Praag H, et al. Exercise enhances learning and hippocampal neurogenesis in aged mice. J Neurosci. 2005 Sep 21;25(38):8680-5.)
“The effects of exercise were at least as good, if not better, than those seen with drugs approved to aid mental function in Alzheimer's disease” (Tanner, Lindsey. Modest brain test benefit seen with brisk walking. Associated Press Tuesday, September 02, 2008)
Exercise itself Improves Dietary Habits
Studies have shown that when people are put on an exercise program involving both aerobic and strength training, they will unconsciously begin to improve their eating habits. As a result of this research, scientists are encouraging exercise professionals to promote increases in overall physical activity in an attempt to modify the patterns of dietary intake. (Shaw, B. et al. Self-reported dietary intake following endurance, resistance and concurrent endurance and resistance training. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2008) 7, 255 – 259)
Exercise as Antioxidant
“A major conclusion that can be drawn from our experiments is that exercise itself is an antioxidant” (Gomez-Cabrera MC, et al. Oral administration of vitamin C decreases muscle mitochondrial biogenesis and hampers training-induced adaptations in endurance performance. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Jan;87(1):142-9.)
I could go on and on... What we have is a society that doesn't want to believe that exercise is necessary for basic health. We went through this with smoking and I suppose we will have to do it all over again with exercise. Not exercising causes most chronic diseases. Not exercising is an actual cause of death. Deny it at your own peril.
in that article he contradicts himself aswell,he says that after vigorous exercise most people do very litlle the rest of the day to recover,where as the people who dont exercise are more active the rest of the day,but whichever way you look at it they are both doing exercise through activity.
i think the problem is people who already do quite alot of exercise,that want to lose more weight automatcaly think that doing more is better when infact they should be looking at there diet
i know a few natural bbrs who have been training and competing for a long time(these are not newbies) and i couldnt believe how they cut for a comp,one guy told me he cuts his food down and does fasted cardio every morning plus does lighter weights and more reps(its no wonder besides the top 3 in comps most nattys look like swimmers,especially there legs) i told him that he should be doing the same weight (if possible) that he normaly does, and that if he wants he doesnt really need to do cardio at all because his defecit should take care of the loss,i doubt they will listen though.
Separate names with a comma.