This paper is by Ralph Carpinelli. He's connected to the Department of Health Studies, Physical Education and Human Performance Science at Adelphi University. His critical commentary on hypertrophy research is impressive and cannot be ignored by any of us who claim to "know" this or that about how experienced lifters grow. This Critical Commentary (attached) addresses some recent review articles and training studies specifically focused on the stimulus for muscle hypertrophy in participants with several years of resistance training experience. It reveals that many of the recommended resistance training protocols have their foundation in some long-held, self-described bias.